Externe Thrombophlebitis

Externe Thrombophlebitis

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Externe Thrombophlebitis

Deep vein thrombosisor deep venous thrombosis DVTis the formation of a blood clot thrombus within a deep vein[a] most commonly the legs. Nonspecific signs may include pain, Externe Thrombophlebitis, swellingredness, warmness, and engorged superficial veins. Pulmonary embolisma potentially life-threatening complicationis caused by Externe Thrombophlebitis detachment embolization of a clot that travels to the lungs. Together, DVT and pulmonary embolism constitute a single disease process known as venous thromboembolism.

Post-thrombotic syndromeanother complication, significantly contributes to the health-care cost of DVT. InGerman pathologist Rudolf Virchow postulated the interplay of three processes resulting in venous thrombosis, now known as Virchow's triad: DVT formation typically begins inside the valves of the calf veins, where the blood is Externe Thrombophlebitis oxygen deprived, which activates certain biochemical pathways.

Several medical conditions increase the risk for DVT, including cancer, Externe Thrombophlebitis, traumaExterne Thrombophlebitis, and antiphospholipid syndrome. Other risk factors include older age, surgery, immobilization as with bed rest, orthopedic castsand sitting for prolonged periodscombined hormonal birth controlpregnancy, the postnatal periodand genetic factors. Those genetic factors include deficiencies with antithrombinprotein Cand protein Sthe mutation of factor V Leidenand the property of having a non-O blood type.

Individuals suspected of having DVT may be assessed using a clinical prediction rule such as the Wells score. A D-dimer test may also be used to assist with excluding the diagnosis because of its high sensitivity or to signal a need for further testing, Externe Thrombophlebitis. Diagnosis is most commonly done with ultrasound of the suspected veins.

Prevention options for at-risk individuals include early and frequent walking, calf exercises, anticoagulants, aspiringraduated compression stockings, and intermittent pneumatic compression. Anticoagulation is the standard treatment; typical medications include low-molecular-weight heparin or a vitamin Externe Thrombophlebitis antagonist.

Wearing graduated compression stockings appears to reduce the risk of post-thrombotic syndrome. Externe Thrombophlebitis rate of DVTs increases from childhood to old age; in adulthood, about one in adults is affected per year. Common signs and symptoms of DVT include pain or tenderness, Externe Thrombophlebitis, swelling, warmth, redness or discoloration, and distention of surface veins, although about half of those with the condition have no symptoms.

Phlegmasia cerulea dolens is a very large and Externe Thrombophlebitis type of DVT. The leg is usually painful, tinged blue in colorand swollenwhich may result in venous gangrene. The three factors of Virchow's triad — venous stasisExterne Thrombophlebitisand changes in the endothelial blood vessel lining such as physical damage or endothelial activation —contribute to DVT and are used to explain its formation.

Acquired risk factors include the strong risk factor of older age, [10] [12] which alters blood composition to favor clotting. Other important acquired risk factors include major surgery and traumaExterne Thrombophlebitis, both of which may increase the risk because of tissue factor from outside the vascular system Externe Thrombophlebitis the blood.

Pregnancy causes blood to favor clottingand in the postpartumplacental tearing releases substances that favor clotting. Oral contraceptives [b] and hormonal replacement therapy increase the risk through a variety of mechanisms, Externe Thrombophlebitis, including altered blood coagulation protein levels and reduced fibrinolysis. Deficiencies in antithrombin Externe Thrombophlebitis, protein Cand protein S are rare but strong, or moderately Tees aus Krampfadern, risk factors.

Some risk factors influence the location of DVT within the body. Transient factors, Externe Thrombophlebitis as surgery and immobilization, Externe Thrombophlebitis, appear to dominate, whereas thrombophilias and age do not seem to increase risk.

DVT often develops in the calf veins and "grows" in the direction of venous flow, towards the heart.

Extensive lower-extremity DVT can reach into the iliac vein of the pelvis or the inferior vena cava. The mechanism behind arterial thrombosis, such as with heart attacksis more established than the steps that cause venous thrombosis. Platelets are Externe Thrombophlebitis as prominent in venous clots as they are in arterial ones, but they may play a role.

Often, DVT begins in the valves of veins, Externe Thrombophlebitis. Hypoxemia, which is worsened by venous stasis, Externe Thrombophlebitis pathways—ones that include hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and early-growth-response protein 1.

DVT diagnosis requires the use of imaging devices such as ultrasound. Clinical assessments, which predict DVT likelihood, can help determine if a D-dimer test is useful, Externe Thrombophlebitis. In those not highly likely to Behandlung von Krampfadern Vorrichtung DVT, a normal D-dimer result [g] can rule out a diagnosis.

Provoked DVTs occur in association with acquired risk factors, such as surgery, oral contraceptives, trauma, Externe Thrombophlebitis, immobility, obesity, or cancer; cases without acquired states are called unprovoked or idiopathic.

DVT in the legs is proximal or iliofemoral [44] when above the knee and distal or calf when below the knee. In those with suspected DVT, a clinical assessment of probability can be useful to determine which tests to perform, Externe Thrombophlebitis. D-dimers are a fibrin degradation productand an elevated level can result from plasmin dissolving a clot—or other conditions. For a suspected first leg DVT in a low-probability situation, the American College of Chest Physicians recommends testing either D-dimer levels with moderate or high sensitivity or compression ultrasound of the proximal veins.

These options are suggested over whole-leg ultrasound, and D-dimer testing is the suggested preference overall. For a suspected first leg DVT in a moderate-probability scenario, a high-sensitivity D-dimer is suggested as a recommended option over ultrasound imaging, with both whole-leg and compression ultrasound possible. Imaging tests of the veins are Externe Thrombophlebitis in the diagnosis of DVT, most commonly either proximal compression ultrasound or whole-leg Externe Thrombophlebitis. Each technique has drawbacks: The gold standard for judging imaging methods is contrast Externe Thrombophlebitiswhich involves injecting a peripheral vein of the affected limb with a contrast agent and taking X-rays, to reveal whether the venous supply has been obstructed.

Because of its cost, invasiveness, availability, and other limitations, this test is rarely performed. A fibrinogen uptake test was formerly used to detect deep vein thrombosis. Depending upon the risk for DVT, different preventive measures are recommended. Walking and calf exercises reduce venous stasis because leg muscle contractions compress the veins and pump blood up towards the heart. Anticoagulation, which increases the risk of bleeding, might be used in high-risk scenarios.

Aside from anticoagulation, the antiplatelet drug aspirin might be used in some people following orthopedic surgery [62] and in those with a previous VTE. Inthe American College of Physicians ACP issued a clinical practice guideline making three strong recommendations based on moderate-quality evidence: The ACP also drew attention to a lack of support for any performance measures encouraging physicians to apply universal prophylaxis without regard to the risks.

A Cochrane review found that using heparin in medical patients did not change the risk of death or pulmonary embolism. The ACCP guidelines for nonsurgical patients [68] [h] recommend anticoagulation for the acutely ill in cases of elevated risk when neither bleeding nor a high risk of bleeding exists. Major orthopedic surgery— total hip replacementtotal knee replacementor hip fracture surgery—has a high risk of causing VTE.

The risk of VTE is increased in pregnancy by about five times [17] [78] because of a more hypercoagulable state, a likely adaptation against fatal postpartum hemorrhage. Those with another thrombophilia but no family or personal history of VTE were suggested for watchful waiting only.

The ACCP guidelines offered weak recommendations. For at-risk long-haul travelers—those with "previous VTE, recent surgery or trauma, active malignancy, pregnancy, estrogen use, advanced age, Externe Thrombophlebitis, limited mobility, severe obesity, or known thrombophilic disorder"—suggestions included calf exercises, frequent walking, and aisle seating in airplanes to ease walking.

Anticoagulationwhich prevents further coagulation, but does Externe Thrombophlebitis act directly on existing clots, Externe Thrombophlebitis, is the standard treatment for DVT. For acute cases in the leg, the ACCP recommended a parenteral anticoagulant such as LMWH, fondaparinux, or unfractionated heparin for at least five days [j] and a VKA, the oral anticoagulant, the same day.

LMWH and fondaparinux are suggested over unfractionated heparin, Externe Thrombophlebitis, but both are retained in those with compromised kidney function, unlike unfractionated heparin. This applies as long as individuals feel ready for it, and those with severe leg symptoms or comorbidities would not qualify.

An appropriate home environment is expected: Unless a person has medical problems preventing movement, after a person starts anti-coagulation therapy bed rest should not be used to treat acute deep vein thrombosis. Instead of anticoagulation, a follow-up imaging test typically ultrasound about one-week post-diagnosis is an option for those with an acute isolated Externe Thrombophlebitis DVT without a high risk for extension; if the clot Externe Thrombophlebitis not grow, the ACCP does not Externe Thrombophlebitis anticoagulation.

Patients may choose anticoagulation over serial imaging, however, Externe Thrombophlebitis, to avoid the inconvenience of another scan if concerns about the risk of bleeding are insignificant. Inferior vena cava filters IVC filters are used on the presumption that they Medikamente für Varizen PE, Externe Thrombophlebitis their Externe Thrombophlebitis and safety profile are not well established.

In this case, both anticoagulation and an IVC filter are suggested. Thrombolysis is the administration of an enzyme intravenous or directly into the affected vein through a catheterExterne Thrombophlebitis, which acts to enzymatically break up clots. This may reduce the risk of post-thrombotic syndrome by a third, and possibly reduce the risk of leg ulcers, Externe Thrombophlebitis, but is associated with an increased risk of bleeding.

A mechanical thrombectomy device can remove venous clots, although the ACCP considers it an option only Externe Thrombophlebitis the following conditions apply: The most frequent complication of proximal DVT is post-thrombotic syndrome, Externe Thrombophlebitis, [] Externe Thrombophlebitis is caused by a reduction in the return of venous blood to the heart.

About 1 in adults per year has DVT, [] but as ofavailable Externe Thrombophlebitis are dominated by North American Externe Thrombophlebitis European populations, Externe Thrombophlebitis.

For populations in Externe Thrombophlebitis, Japan, and Thailand, I von Krampfadern geheilt in protein S, protein C, and antithrombin predominate, Externe Thrombophlebitis.

Initial DVT costs for an average hospitalized patient in the U. InExterne Thrombophlebitis, German physician and pathologist Rudolf Virchow published what is referred to as Virchow's triad, the three major causes of thrombosis.

Multiple pharmacological therapies for DVT were introduced in the 20th century: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Externe Thrombophlebitis.

For other uses, see DVT Externe Thrombophlebitis. An ultrasound with a blood clot visible in the left common femoral vein. An abdominal CT scan with a clot in the right common iliac vein. Structural representations of the backbone of heparins leftwhich vary in the size of their chain, and the synthetic pentasaccaride five-sugar fondaparinux right.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Retrieved 15 April Antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines". How should we use them in clinical practice? Semin Respir Crit Care Med. World J Surg Oncol. Vascular and Endovascular Surgery.

American College of Surgeons. Archived from the original on 27 January Retrieved 16 January N Engl J Med. What is the link?


On Feb 1, P. Schultz (and others) published: Otite externe nécrosante (otite maligne externe) et diabète: Necrotising (malignant) external otitis and diabetes.

By continuing to browse this site you agree to us using cookies as described in About Cookies. Infusion phlebitis has become one of the most common complications in patients with intravenous therapy.

Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new methods to prevent and alleviate infusion phlebitis, Externe Thrombophlebitis. To systematically assess the effects of external application of Aloe vera for the prevention and treatment of infusion phlebitis associated with the presence of an intravenous access device. The authors searched the following Chinese databases until 28 February Bibliographies of retrieved and relevant publications were searched, Externe Thrombophlebitis.

There were no restrictions on the basis of date or language of publication, Externe Thrombophlebitis. Randomised controlled trials RCTs and quasi-randomised controlled trials qRCTs were included if they involved participants receiving topical Aloe vera or Aloe vera -derived products at the site of Externe Thrombophlebitis skin, with or without routine treatment at the same site. Two review authors independently extracted the data on the study characteristics, Externe Thrombophlebitis, description of methodology and outcomes of the eligible trials, and assessed study quality.

Data were analysed using RevMan 5. Twenty-two trials with participants were involved in prevention of Aloe vera for phlebitis, and a further 21 trials with participants were involved in the treatment of phlebitis. The included studies compared external application of Aloe vera alone or plus non- Aloe vera interventions with no treatment or the same non- Externe Thrombophlebitis vera interventions, Externe Thrombophlebitis. The duration of the intervention lasted from one day to 15 days, Externe Thrombophlebitis.

Most of the included studies were of low methodological quality with concerns for selection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias and publication bias.

The effects of external application of fresh Aloe vera on preventing total incidence of phlebitis varied across the studies and we did not combine the data. Aloe vera reduced the occurrence of third degree phlebitis Kapseln aus Varizen Vietnam 0. Compared with routine treatments such as external application of hirudoid, sulphonic acid mucopolysaccharide and dexamethasone used alone, addition of Aloe vera improved recovery from phlebitis RR 1.

Aloe veraeither alone or in combination with routine treatment, was more effective than routine treatment alone for improving the symptoms of phlebitis including shortening the time of elimination of red swelling symptoms, time of pain relief at the location of the infusion vein and time of resolution of phlebitis. Other secondary outcomes including health-related quality of life and adverse effects were not reported in the included studies.

There is no strong evidence for preventing or treating infusion Externe Thrombophlebitis with external application of Aloe vera. The current available evidence is limited by the poor methodological Externe Thrombophlebitis and risk of selective outcome reporting of the included studies, and by variation in the size of effect across the studies. Il n'y avait aucune restriction concernant la langue ou la date de publication. Financeurs pour le Canada: Infusion phlebitis is acute inflammation of a vein in the presence of intravenous therapy.

Therefore infusion phlebitis is the most common complication of intravenous therapy, Externe Thrombophlebitis. This review examined 35 randomised controlled trials and eight quasi-randomised controlled trials with participants. Twenty-two trials with participants were involved in looking at prevention of phlebitis with Aloe veraand a further 21 trials with participants were involved in looking at Aloe vera for the treatment of phlebitis, Externe Thrombophlebitis.

The duration of intervention lasted from one day to 15 days, Externe Thrombophlebitis. The incidence of phlebitis at varying degrees of severity as well as the resolution rate and level of improvement of phlebitis were investigated. The available evidence suggests that external application of fresh Aloe vera alone or combined with other non- Aloe vera treatment may be effective for the prevention and treatment of infusion phlebitis resulting from the intravenous therapy.

The conclusions should be cautiously interpreted due to the Externe Thrombophlebitis methodological quality of the included trials. Infuzijski flebitis je akutna upala vena koja nastaje za vrijeme intravenske terapije. U ovom Cochrane sustavnom pregledu je analizirano 35 randomiziranih kontroliranih studija i 8 kvazi-randomiziranih kontroliranih studija s ukupno pacijenata. Primjena intervencija trajala je od dana. Article first published online: By continuing to browse this site you agree to us using cookies as described in About Cookies Remove maintenance message.

Go to old article view Comment. Objectives To systematically assess the effects of Externe Thrombophlebitis application of Aloe vera Externe Thrombophlebitis the prevention and treatment of infusion phlebitis associated with the presence of an intravenous access device.

Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials RCTs and quasi-randomised controlled trials qRCTs were included if they involved participants receiving topical Aloe vera or Externe Thrombophlebitis vera -derived products at the site of punctured skin, Externe Thrombophlebitis, with or without routine treatment at the same site.

Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted the data on the study characteristics, Externe Thrombophlebitis, description of methodology and outcomes of the eligible trials, and assessed study quality. Authors' conclusions There is no strong evidence for preventing or treating infusion phlebitis with external application of Aloe vera. Notes de traduction Translated by: French Cochrane Centre Translation supported by: English French Croatian Japanese.

Plain language summary Aloe vera for prevention and treatment of infusion phlebitis Infusion phlebitis is acute inflammation of a vein in the presence of intravenous therapy.

Continue reading full article. Editorial Group Cochrane Vascular Group. Number of Externe Thrombophlebitis cited: Close article Krampfadern Krankheit Auftreten Faktoren pane.


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